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550                                   THE IRON INDUSTRY.
produced in mining, thus obtaining clean grains of ore. The ore is used raw and is self-fluxing, giving a pig-iron containing about 3 per cent, of phosphorus, which is' the best for basic Bessemer practice of any iron in Germany. It is smelted at Ilsede in three blast furnaces of 200 tons each, and the fuel ratio is about 1 to 1. The records of manufacture for 223,000 tons of pig show that 2.925 tons of ore were used per ton of pig-iron, while the coke was 1.008 tons. The coke is brought from the Euhr, a distance of over 150 miles, with a freight rate of $1.58 per ton, but it has been estimated by Schrb'dter that the cost of pig-iron was only about $6.75 per ton, in an era of low prices a few years ago. In 1899, owing to high cost of fuel and supplies, the pig-iron cost $9.10 and in 1900 it was $10.10. A local supply of lignite helps keep the wolf from the door. In 1902 the output of ingots was 239,000 tons, about 20,000 tons per month. The pig-iron is converted into steel at Peine, three miles away, where there are four basic converters of 15 tons capacity.
SEC. XXIVh.—Kingdom of Saxony:
The Kingdom of Saxony, which must not be confounded with the province of the same name, is on the border of Austria, touching Silesia on the east, while Bavaria lies on the west. It contains a good supply of fuel, and in 1899 raised 4,500,000 tons of bituminous coal and 1,300,000 tons of lignite. Some of this coal will make coke, and 72,000 tons were so used in the year mentioned. There are some deposits of ore, but the amount is unimportant. No pig-iron is smelted, but pig-iron is brought in from, outside and the district around Chemnitz shows quite a development of the steel industry. A small amount of puddled iron is also made. There are four steel works. One has two acid converters of six tons capacity, which in 1902 made 11,000 tons of steel, and another has three basic converters of 15 tons, which made 40,000 tons. There is one acid open-hearth furnace of eight tons and eleven basic furnaces of 13 tons. There are also some small steel-casting plants.
SEC. XXIVi.—The Siegen:
Siegerland includes the southern portion of Westphalia and the eastern arm of the Ehine province. It has no coal, but raises a large amount of ore, most of this being a carbonate occurring in mammoth fissure veins of great extent. The ore is mined by shafts averaging about 700 feet in depth, and is roasted before smelting, the loss in weight being 30 per cent. About two-thirds of the output